aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiffstats
path: root/mm/huge_memory.c
AgeCommit message (Collapse)AuthorFilesLines
2013-02-05thp: avoid dumping huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov1-0/+4
No reason to preserve the huge zero page in core dumps. Reported-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Reviewed-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2013-01-11mm: thp: acquire the anon_vma rwsem for write during splitMel Gorman1-2/+13
Zhouping Liu reported the following against 3.8-rc1 when running a mmap testcase from LTP. mapcount 0 page_mapcount 3 ------------[ cut here ]------------ kernel BUG at mm/huge_memory.c:1798! invalid opcode: 0000 [#1] SMP Modules linked in: ip6table_filter ip6_tables ebtable_nat ebtables bnep bluetooth rfkill iptable_mangle ipt_REJECT nf_conntrack_ipv4 nf_defrag_ipv4 xt_conntrack nf_conntrack iptable_filter ip_tables be2iscsi iscsi_boot_sysfs bnx2i cnic uio cxgb4i cxgb4 cxgb3i cxgb3 mdio libcxgbi ib_iser rdma_cm ib_addr iw_cm ib_cm ib_sa ib_mad ib_core iscsi_tcp libiscsi_tcp libiscsi scsi_transport_iscsi vfat fat dm_mirror dm_region_hash dm_log dm_mod cdc_ether iTCO_wdt i7core_edac coretemp usbnet iTCO_vendor_support mii crc32c_intel edac_core lpc_ich shpchp ioatdma mfd_core i2c_i801 pcspkr serio_raw bnx2 microcode dca vhost_net tun macvtap macvlan kvm_intel kvm uinput mgag200 sr_mod cdrom i2c_algo_bit sd_mod drm_kms_helper crc_t10dif ata_generic pata_acpi ttm ata_piix drm libata i2c_core megaraid_sas CPU 1 Pid: 23217, comm: mmap10 Not tainted 3.8.0-rc1mainline+ #17 IBM IBM System x3400 M3 Server -[7379I08]-/69Y4356 RIP: __split_huge_page+0x677/0x6d0 RSP: 0000:ffff88017a03fc08 EFLAGS: 00010293 RAX: 0000000000000003 RBX: ffff88027a6c22e0 RCX: 00000000000034d2 RDX: 000000000000748b RSI: 0000000000000046 RDI: 0000000000000246 RBP: ffff88017a03fcb8 R08: ffffffff819d2440 R09: 000000000000054a R10: 0000000000aaaaaa R11: 00000000ffffffff R12: 0000000000000000 R13: 00007f4f11a00000 R14: ffff880179e96e00 R15: ffffea0005c08000 FS: 00007f4f11f4a740(0000) GS:ffff88017bc20000(0000) knlGS:0000000000000000 CS: 0010 DS: 0000 ES: 0000 CR0: 000000008005003b CR2: 00000037e9ebb404 CR3: 000000017a436000 CR4: 00000000000007e0 DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000 DR3: 0000000000000000 DR6: 00000000ffff0ff0 DR7: 0000000000000400 Process mmap10 (pid: 23217, threadinfo ffff88017a03e000, task ffff880172dd32e0) Stack: ffff88017a540ec8 ffff88017a03fc20 ffffffff816017b5 ffff88017a03fc88 ffffffff812fa014 0000000000000000 ffff880279ebd5c0 00000000f4f11a4c 00000007f4f11f49 00000007f4f11a00 ffff88017a540ef0 ffff88017a540ee8 Call Trace: split_huge_page+0x68/0xb0 __split_huge_page_pmd+0x134/0x330 split_huge_page_pmd_mm+0x51/0x60 split_huge_page_address+0x3b/0x50 __vma_adjust_trans_huge+0x9c/0xf0 vma_adjust+0x684/0x750 __split_vma.isra.28+0x1fa/0x220 do_munmap+0xf9/0x420 vm_munmap+0x4e/0x70 sys_munmap+0x2b/0x40 system_call_fastpath+0x16/0x1b Alexander Beregalov and Alex Xu reported similar bugs and Hillf Danton identified that commit 5a505085f043 ("mm/rmap: Convert the struct anon_vma::mutex to an rwsem") and commit 4fc3f1d66b1e ("mm/rmap, migration: Make rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() more scalable") were likely the problem. Reverting these commits was reported to solve the problem for Alexander. Despite the reason for these commits, NUMA balancing is not the direct source of the problem. split_huge_page() expects the anon_vma lock to be exclusive to serialise the whole split operation. Ordinarily it is expected that the anon_vma lock would only be required when updating the avcs but THP also uses the anon_vma rwsem for collapse and split operations where the page lock or compound lock cannot be used (as the page is changing from base to THP or vice versa) and the page table locks are insufficient. This patch takes the anon_vma lock for write to serialise against parallel split_huge_page as THP expected before the conversion to rwsem. Reported-and-tested-by: Zhouping Liu <zliu@redhat.com> Reported-by: Alexander Beregalov <a.beregalov@gmail.com> Reported-by: Alex Xu <alex_y_xu@yahoo.ca> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-20mm: clean up transparent hugepage sysfs error messagesJeremy Eder1-3/+3
Clarify error messages and correct a few typos in the transparent hugepage sysfs init code. Signed-off-by: Jeremy Eder <jeder@redhat.com> Acked-by: Rafael Aquini <aquini@redhat.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-16mm: fix kernel BUG at huge_memory.c:1474!Hugh Dickins1-3/+3
Andrea's autonuma-benchmark numa01 hits kernel BUG at huge_memory.c:1474! in change_huge_pmd called from change_protection from change_prot_numa from task_numa_work. That BUG, introduced in the huge zero page commit cad7f613c4d0 ("thp: change_huge_pmd(): make sure we don't try to make a page writable") was trying to verify that newprot never adds write permission to an anonymous huge page; but Automatic NUMA Balancing's 4b10e7d562c9 ("mm: mempolicy: Implement change_prot_numa() in terms of change_protection()") adds a new prot_numa path into change_huge_pmd(), which makes no use of the newprot provided, and may retain the write bit in the pmd. Just move the BUG_ON(pmd_write(entry)) up into the !prot_numa block. Signed-off-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-16Merge tag 'balancenuma-v11' of ↵Linus Torvalds1-9/+99
git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mel/linux-balancenuma Pull Automatic NUMA Balancing bare-bones from Mel Gorman: "There are three implementations for NUMA balancing, this tree (balancenuma), numacore which has been developed in tip/master and autonuma which is in aa.git. In almost all respects balancenuma is the dumbest of the three because its main impact is on the VM side with no attempt to be smart about scheduling. In the interest of getting the ball rolling, it would be desirable to see this much merged for 3.8 with the view to building scheduler smarts on top and adapting the VM where required for 3.9. The most recent set of comparisons available from different people are mel: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/9/108 mingo: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/7/331 tglx: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/10/437 srikar: https://lkml.org/lkml/2012/12/10/397 The results are a mixed bag. In my own tests, balancenuma does reasonably well. It's dumb as rocks and does not regress against mainline. On the other hand, Ingo's tests shows that balancenuma is incapable of converging for this workloads driven by perf which is bad but is potentially explained by the lack of scheduler smarts. Thomas' results show balancenuma improves on mainline but falls far short of numacore or autonuma. Srikar's results indicate we all suffer on a large machine with imbalanced node sizes. My own testing showed that recent numacore results have improved dramatically, particularly in the last week but not universally. We've butted heads heavily on system CPU usage and high levels of migration even when it shows that overall performance is better. There are also cases where it regresses. Of interest is that for specjbb in some configurations it will regress for lower numbers of warehouses and show gains for higher numbers which is not reported by the tool by default and sometimes missed in treports. Recently I reported for numacore that the JVM was crashing with NullPointerExceptions but currently it's unclear what the source of this problem is. Initially I thought it was in how numacore batch handles PTEs but I'm no longer think this is the case. It's possible numacore is just able to trigger it due to higher rates of migration. These reports were quite late in the cycle so I/we would like to start with this tree as it contains much of the code we can agree on and has not changed significantly over the last 2-3 weeks." * tag 'balancenuma-v11' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/mel/linux-balancenuma: (50 commits) mm/rmap, migration: Make rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() more scalable mm/rmap: Convert the struct anon_vma::mutex to an rwsem mm: migrate: Account a transhuge page properly when rate limiting mm: numa: Account for failed allocations and isolations as migration failures mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case build fix mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case. mm: sched: numa: Delay PTE scanning until a task is scheduled on a new node mm: sched: numa: Control enabling and disabling of NUMA balancing if !SCHED_DEBUG mm: sched: numa: Control enabling and disabling of NUMA balancing mm: sched: Adapt the scanning rate if a NUMA hinting fault does not migrate mm: numa: Use a two-stage filter to restrict pages being migrated for unlikely task<->node relationships mm: numa: migrate: Set last_nid on newly allocated page mm: numa: split_huge_page: Transfer last_nid on tail page mm: numa: Introduce last_nid to the page frame sched: numa: Slowly increase the scanning period as NUMA faults are handled mm: numa: Rate limit setting of pte_numa if node is saturated mm: numa: Rate limit the amount of memory that is migrated between nodes mm: numa: Structures for Migrate On Fault per NUMA migration rate limiting mm: numa: Migrate pages handled during a pmd_numa hinting fault mm: numa: Migrate on reference policy ...
2012-12-12thp: avoid race on multiple parallel page faults to the same pageKirill A. Shutemov1-5/+24
pmd value is stable only with mm->page_table_lock taken. After taking the lock we need to check that nobody modified the pmd before changing it. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Jiri Slaby <jslaby@suse.cz> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Reviewed-by: Bob Liu <lliubbo@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: introduce sysfs knob to disable huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov1-2/+19
By default kernel tries to use huge zero page on read page fault. It's possible to disable huge zero page by writing 0 or enable it back by writing 1: echo 0 >/sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/khugepaged/use_zero_page echo 1 >/sys/kernel/mm/transparent_hugepage/khugepaged/use_zero_page Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp, vmstat: implement HZP_ALLOC and HZP_ALLOC_FAILED eventsKirill A. Shutemov1-1/+4
hzp_alloc is incremented every time a huge zero page is successfully allocated. It includes allocations which where dropped due race with other allocation. Note, it doesn't count every map of the huge zero page, only its allocation. hzp_alloc_failed is incremented if kernel fails to allocate huge zero page and falls back to using small pages. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: implement refcounting for huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov1-25/+88
H. Peter Anvin doesn't like huge zero page which sticks in memory forever after the first allocation. Here's implementation of lockless refcounting for huge zero page. We have two basic primitives: {get,put}_huge_zero_page(). They manipulate reference counter. If counter is 0, get_huge_zero_page() allocates a new huge page and takes two references: one for caller and one for shrinker. We free the page only in shrinker callback if counter is 1 (only shrinker has the reference). put_huge_zero_page() only decrements counter. Counter is never zero in put_huge_zero_page() since shrinker holds on reference. Freeing huge zero page in shrinker callback helps to avoid frequent allocate-free. Refcounting has cost. On 4 socket machine I observe ~1% slowdown on parallel (40 processes) read page faulting comparing to lazy huge page allocation. I think it's pretty reasonable for synthetic benchmark. [lliubbo@gmail.com: fix mismerge] Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Bob Liu <lliubbo@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: lazy huge zero page allocationKirill A. Shutemov1-10/+10
Instead of allocating huge zero page on hugepage_init() we can postpone it until first huge zero page map. It saves memory if THP is not in use. cmpxchg() is used to avoid race on huge_zero_pfn initialization. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: setup huge zero page on non-write page faultKirill A. Shutemov1-0/+10
All code paths seems covered. Now we can map huge zero page on read page fault. We setup it in do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page() if area around fault address is suitable for THP and we've got read page fault. If we fail to setup huge zero page (ENOMEM) we fallback to handle_pte_fault() as we normally do in THP. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: implement splitting pmd for huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov1-1/+42
We can't split huge zero page itself (and it's bug if we try), but we can split the pmd which points to it. On splitting the pmd we create a table with all ptes set to normal zero page. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix build error] Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: change split_huge_page_pmd() interfaceKirill A. Shutemov1-2/+17
Pass vma instead of mm and add address parameter. In most cases we already have vma on the stack. We provides split_huge_page_pmd_mm() for few cases when we have mm, but not vma. This change is preparation to huge zero pmd splitting implementation. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: change_huge_pmd(): make sure we don't try to make a page writableKirill A. Shutemov1-0/+1
mprotect core never tries to make page writable using change_huge_pmd(). Let's add an assert that the assumption is true. It's important to be sure we will not make huge zero page writable. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: do_huge_pmd_wp_page(): handle huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov1-15/+96
On write access to huge zero page we alloc a new huge page and clear it. If ENOMEM, graceful fallback: we create a new pmd table and set pte around fault address to newly allocated normal (4k) page. All other ptes in the pmd set to normal zero page. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: copy_huge_pmd(): copy huge zero pageKirill A. Shutemov1-0/+22
It's easy to copy huge zero page. Just set destination pmd to huge zero page. It's safe to copy huge zero page since we have none yet :-p [rientjes@google.com: fix comment] Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: zap_huge_pmd(): zap huge zero pmdKirill A. Shutemov1-8/+13
We don't have a mapped page to zap in huge zero page case. Let's just clear pmd and remove it from tlb. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-12thp: huge zero page: basic preparationKirill A. Shutemov1-0/+30
During testing I noticed big (up to 2.5 times) memory consumption overhead on some workloads (e.g. ft.A from NPB) if THP is enabled. The main reason for that big difference is lacking zero page in THP case. We have to allocate a real page on read page fault. A program to demonstrate the issue: #include <assert.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <unistd.h> #define MB 1024*1024 int main(int argc, char **argv) { char *p; int i; posix_memalign((void **)&p, 2 * MB, 200 * MB); for (i = 0; i < 200 * MB; i+= 4096) assert(p[i] == 0); pause(); return 0; } With thp-never RSS is about 400k, but with thp-always it's 200M. After the patcheset thp-always RSS is 400k too. Design overview. Huge zero page (hzp) is a non-movable huge page (2M on x86-64) filled with zeros. The way how we allocate it changes in the patchset: - [01/10] simplest way: hzp allocated on boot time in hugepage_init(); - [09/10] lazy allocation on first use; - [10/10] lockless refcounting + shrinker-reclaimable hzp; We setup it in do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page() if area around fault address is suitable for THP and we've got read page fault. If we fail to setup hzp (ENOMEM) we fallback to handle_pte_fault() as we normally do in THP. On wp fault to hzp we allocate real memory for the huge page and clear it. If ENOMEM, graceful fallback: we create a new pmd table and set pte around fault address to newly allocated normal (4k) page. All other ptes in the pmd set to normal zero page. We cannot split hzp (and it's bug if we try), but we can split the pmd which points to it. On splitting the pmd we create a table with all ptes set to normal zero page. === By hpa's request I've tried alternative approach for hzp implementation (see Virtual huge zero page patchset): pmd table with all entries set to zero page. This way should be more cache friendly, but it increases TLB pressure. The problem with virtual huge zero page: it requires per-arch enabling. We need a way to mark that pmd table has all ptes set to zero page. Some numbers to compare two implementations (on 4s Westmere-EX): Mirobenchmark1 ============== test: posix_memalign((void **)&p, 2 * MB, 8 * GB); for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) { assert(memcmp(p, p + 4*GB, 4*GB) == 0); asm volatile ("": : :"memory"); } hzp: Performance counter stats for './test_memcmp' (5 runs): 32356.272845 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.13% ) 40 context-switches # 0.001 K/sec ( +- 0.94% ) 0 CPU-migrations # 0.000 K/sec 4,218 page-faults # 0.130 K/sec ( +- 0.00% ) 76,712,481,765 cycles # 2.371 GHz ( +- 0.13% ) [83.31%] 36,279,577,636 stalled-cycles-frontend # 47.29% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.28% ) [83.35%] 1,684,049,110 stalled-cycles-backend # 2.20% backend cycles idle ( +- 2.96% ) [66.67%] 134,355,715,816 instructions # 1.75 insns per cycle # 0.27 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.10% ) [83.35%] 13,526,169,702 branches # 418.039 M/sec ( +- 0.10% ) [83.31%] 1,058,230 branch-misses # 0.01% of all branches ( +- 0.91% ) [83.36%] 32.413866442 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.13% ) vhzp: Performance counter stats for './test_memcmp' (5 runs): 30327.183829 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.13% ) 38 context-switches # 0.001 K/sec ( +- 1.53% ) 0 CPU-migrations # 0.000 K/sec 4,218 page-faults # 0.139 K/sec ( +- 0.01% ) 71,964,773,660 cycles # 2.373 GHz ( +- 0.13% ) [83.35%] 31,191,284,231 stalled-cycles-frontend # 43.34% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.40% ) [83.32%] 773,484,474 stalled-cycles-backend # 1.07% backend cycles idle ( +- 6.61% ) [66.67%] 134,982,215,437 instructions # 1.88 insns per cycle # 0.23 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.11% ) [83.32%] 13,509,150,683 branches # 445.447 M/sec ( +- 0.11% ) [83.34%] 1,017,667 branch-misses # 0.01% of all branches ( +- 1.07% ) [83.32%] 30.381324695 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.13% ) Mirobenchmark2 ============== test: posix_memalign((void **)&p, 2 * MB, 8 * GB); for (i = 0; i < 1000; i++) { char *_p = p; while (_p < p+4*GB) { assert(*_p == *(_p+4*GB)); _p += 4096; asm volatile ("": : :"memory"); } } hzp: Performance counter stats for 'taskset -c 0 ./test_memcmp2' (5 runs): 3505.727639 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.26% ) 9 context-switches # 0.003 K/sec ( +- 4.97% ) 4,384 page-faults # 0.001 M/sec ( +- 0.00% ) 8,318,482,466 cycles # 2.373 GHz ( +- 0.26% ) [33.31%] 5,134,318,786 stalled-cycles-frontend # 61.72% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.42% ) [33.32%] 2,193,266,208 stalled-cycles-backend # 26.37% backend cycles idle ( +- 5.51% ) [33.33%] 9,494,670,537 instructions # 1.14 insns per cycle # 0.54 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.13% ) [41.68%] 2,108,522,738 branches # 601.451 M/sec ( +- 0.09% ) [41.68%] 158,746 branch-misses # 0.01% of all branches ( +- 1.60% ) [41.71%] 3,168,102,115 L1-dcache-loads # 903.693 M/sec ( +- 0.11% ) [41.70%] 1,048,710,998 L1-dcache-misses # 33.10% of all L1-dcache hits ( +- 0.11% ) [41.72%] 1,047,699,685 LLC-load # 298.854 M/sec ( +- 0.03% ) [33.38%] 2,287 LLC-misses # 0.00% of all LL-cache hits ( +- 8.27% ) [33.37%] 3,166,187,367 dTLB-loads # 903.147 M/sec ( +- 0.02% ) [33.35%] 4,266,538 dTLB-misses # 0.13% of all dTLB cache hits ( +- 0.03% ) [33.33%] 3.513339813 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.26% ) vhzp: Performance counter stats for 'taskset -c 0 ./test_memcmp2' (5 runs): 27313.891128 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.24% ) 62 context-switches # 0.002 K/sec ( +- 0.61% ) 4,384 page-faults # 0.160 K/sec ( +- 0.01% ) 64,747,374,606 cycles # 2.370 GHz ( +- 0.24% ) [33.33%] 61,341,580,278 stalled-cycles-frontend # 94.74% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.26% ) [33.33%] 56,702,237,511 stalled-cycles-backend # 87.57% backend cycles idle ( +- 0.07% ) [33.33%] 10,033,724,846 instructions # 0.15 insns per cycle # 6.11 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.09% ) [41.65%] 2,190,424,932 branches # 80.195 M/sec ( +- 0.12% ) [41.66%] 1,028,630 branch-misses # 0.05% of all branches ( +- 1.50% ) [41.66%] 3,302,006,540 L1-dcache-loads # 120.891 M/sec ( +- 0.11% ) [41.68%] 271,374,358 L1-dcache-misses # 8.22% of all L1-dcache hits ( +- 0.04% ) [41.66%] 20,385,476 LLC-load # 0.746 M/sec ( +- 1.64% ) [33.34%] 76,754 LLC-misses # 0.38% of all LL-cache hits ( +- 2.35% ) [33.34%] 3,309,927,290 dTLB-loads # 121.181 M/sec ( +- 0.03% ) [33.34%] 2,098,967,427 dTLB-misses # 63.41% of all dTLB cache hits ( +- 0.03% ) [33.34%] 27.364448741 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.24% ) === I personally prefer implementation present in this patchset. It doesn't touch arch-specific code. This patch: Huge zero page (hzp) is a non-movable huge page (2M on x86-64) filled with zeros. For now let's allocate the page on hugepage_init(). We'll switch to lazy allocation later. We are not going to map the huge zero page until we can handle it properly on all code paths. is_huge_zero_{pfn,pmd}() functions will be used by following patches to check whether the pfn/pmd is huge zero page. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11mm: thp: set the accessed flag for old pages on access faultWill Deacon1-0/+22
On x86 memory accesses to pages without the ACCESSED flag set result in the ACCESSED flag being set automatically. With the ARM architecture a page access fault is raised instead (and it will continue to be raised until the ACCESSED flag is set for the appropriate PTE/PMD). For normal memory pages, handle_pte_fault will call pte_mkyoung (effectively setting the ACCESSED flag). For transparent huge pages, pmd_mkyoung will only be called for a write fault. This patch ensures that faults on transparent hugepages which do not result in a CoW update the access flags for the faulting pmd. Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com> Cc: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> Acked-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Acked-by: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Ni zhan Chen <nizhan.chen@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11thp: cleanup: introduce mk_huge_pmd()Bob Liu1-9/+12
Introduce mk_huge_pmd() to simplify the code Signed-off-by: Bob Liu <lliubbo@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Ni zhan Chen <nizhan.chen@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11thp: introduce hugepage_vma_check()Bob Liu1-21/+17
Multiple places do the same check. Signed-off-by: Bob Liu <lliubbo@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Ni zhan Chen <nizhan.chen@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11mm: introduce mm_find_pmd()Bob Liu1-45/+10
Several place need to find the pmd by(mm_struct, address), so introduce a function to simplify it. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: fix warning] Signed-off-by: Bob Liu <lliubbo@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Ni zhan Chen <nizhan.chen@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11thp: clean up __collapse_huge_page_isolateBob Liu1-27/+11
There are duplicated places using release_pte_pages(). And release_all_pte_pages() can be removed. Signed-off-by: Bob Liu <lliubbo@gmail.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Minchan Kim <minchan.kim@gmail.com> Cc: Ni zhan Chen <nizhan.chen@gmail.com> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-12-11mm/rmap, migration: Make rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() more scalableIngo Molnar1-3/+3
rmap_walk_anon() and try_to_unmap_anon() appears to be too careful about locking the anon vma: while it needs protection against anon vma list modifications, it does not need exclusive access to the list itself. Transforming this exclusive lock to a read-locked rwsem removes a global lock from the hot path of page-migration intense threaded workloads which can cause pathological performance like this: 96.43% process 0 [kernel.kallsyms] [k] perf_trace_sched_switch | --- perf_trace_sched_switch __schedule schedule schedule_preempt_disabled __mutex_lock_common.isra.6 __mutex_lock_slowpath mutex_lock | |--50.61%-- rmap_walk | move_to_new_page | migrate_pages | migrate_misplaced_page | __do_numa_page.isra.69 | handle_pte_fault | handle_mm_fault | __do_page_fault | do_page_fault | page_fault | __memset_sse2 | | | --100.00%-- worker_thread | | | --100.00%-- start_thread | --49.39%-- page_lock_anon_vma try_to_unmap_anon try_to_unmap migrate_pages migrate_misplaced_page __do_numa_page.isra.69 handle_pte_fault handle_mm_fault __do_page_fault do_page_fault page_fault __memset_sse2 | --100.00%-- worker_thread start_thread With this change applied the profile is now nicely flat and there's no anon-vma related scheduling/blocking. Rename anon_vma_[un]lock() => anon_vma_[un]lock_write(), to make it clearer that it's an exclusive write-lock in that case - suggested by Rik van Riel. Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Paul Turner <pjt@google.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm/rmap: Convert the struct anon_vma::mutex to an rwsemIngo Molnar1-2/+2
Convert the struct anon_vma::mutex to an rwsem, which will help in solving a page-migration scalability problem. (Addressed in a separate patch.) The conversion is simple and straightforward: in every case where we mutex_lock()ed we'll now down_write(). Suggested-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Paul Turner <pjt@google.com> Cc: Lee Schermerhorn <Lee.Schermerhorn@hp.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case.Mel Gorman1-19/+40
Note: This is very heavily based on a patch from Peter Zijlstra with fixes from Ingo Molnar, Hugh Dickins and Johannes Weiner. That patch put a lot of migration logic into mm/huge_memory.c where it does not belong. This version puts tries to share some of the migration logic with migrate_misplaced_page. However, it should be noted that now migrate.c is doing more with the pagetable manipulation than is preferred. The end result is barely recognisable so as before, the signed-offs had to be removed but will be re-added if the original authors are ok with it. Add THP migration for the NUMA working set scanning fault case. It uses the page lock to serialize. No migration pte dance is necessary because the pte is already unmapped when we decide to migrate. [dhillf@gmail.com: Fix memory leak on isolation failure] [dhillf@gmail.com: Fix transfer of last_nid information] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm: sched: Adapt the scanning rate if a NUMA hinting fault does not migrateMel Gorman1-1/+1
The PTE scanning rate and fault rates are two of the biggest sources of system CPU overhead with automatic NUMA placement. Ideally a proper policy would detect if a workload was properly placed, schedule and adjust the PTE scanning rate accordingly. We do not track the necessary information to do that but we at least know if we migrated or not. This patch scans slower if a page was not migrated as the result of a NUMA hinting fault up to sysctl_numa_balancing_scan_period_max which is now higher than the previous default. Once every minute it will reset the scanner in case of phase changes. This is hilariously crude and the numbers are arbitrary. Workloads will converge quite slowly in comparison to what a proper policy should be able to do. On the plus side, we will chew up less CPU for workloads that have no need for automatic balancing. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm: numa: split_huge_page: Transfer last_nid on tail pageHillf Danton1-0/+1
Pass last_nid from head page to tail page. Signed-off-by: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Add pte updates, hinting and migration statsMel Gorman1-0/+5
It is tricky to quantify the basic cost of automatic NUMA placement in a meaningful manner. This patch adds some vmstats that can be used as part of a basic costing model. u = basic unit = sizeof(void *) Ca = cost of struct page access = sizeof(struct page) / u Cpte = Cost PTE access = Ca Cupdate = Cost PTE update = (2 * Cpte) + (2 * Wlock) where Cpte is incurred twice for a read and a write and Wlock is a constant representing the cost of taking or releasing a lock Cnumahint = Cost of a minor page fault = some high constant e.g. 1000 Cpagerw = Cost to read or write a full page = Ca + PAGE_SIZE/u Ci = Cost of page isolation = Ca + Wi where Wi is a constant that should reflect the approximate cost of the locking operation Cpagecopy = Cpagerw + (Cpagerw * Wnuma) + Ci + (Ci * Wnuma) where Wnuma is the approximate NUMA factor. 1 is local. 1.2 would imply that remote accesses are 20% more expensive Balancing cost = Cpte * numa_pte_updates + Cnumahint * numa_hint_faults + Ci * numa_pages_migrated + Cpagecopy * numa_pages_migrated Note that numa_pages_migrated is used as a measure of how many pages were isolated even though it would miss pages that failed to migrate. A vmstat counter could have been added for it but the isolation cost is pretty marginal in comparison to the overall cost so it seemed overkill. The ideal way to measure automatic placement benefit would be to count the number of remote accesses versus local accesses and do something like benefit = (remote_accesses_before - remove_access_after) * Wnuma but the information is not readily available. As a workload converges, the expection would be that the number of remote numa hints would reduce to 0. convergence = numa_hint_faults_local / numa_hint_faults where this is measured for the last N number of numa hints recorded. When the workload is fully converged the value is 1. This can measure if the placement policy is converging and how fast it is doing it. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Add fault driven placement and migrationPeter Zijlstra1-1/+4
NOTE: This patch is based on "sched, numa, mm: Add fault driven placement and migration policy" but as it throws away all the policy to just leave a basic foundation I had to drop the signed-offs-by. This patch creates a bare-bones method for setting PTEs pte_numa in the context of the scheduler that when faulted later will be faulted onto the node the CPU is running on. In itself this does nothing useful but any placement policy will fundamentally depend on receiving hints on placement from fault context and doing something intelligent about it. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Acked-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-12-11mm: mempolicy: Implement change_prot_numa() in terms of change_protection()Mel Gorman1-2/+12
This patch converts change_prot_numa() to use change_protection(). As pte_numa and friends check the PTE bits directly it is necessary for change_protection() to use pmd_mknuma(). Hence the required modifications to change_protection() are a little clumsy but the end result is that most of the numa page table helpers are just one or two instructions. Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm: mempolicy: Use _PAGE_NUMA to migrate pagesMel Gorman1-3/+28
Note: Based on "mm/mpol: Use special PROT_NONE to migrate pages" but sufficiently different that the signed-off-bys were dropped Combine our previous _PAGE_NUMA, mpol_misplaced and migrate_misplaced_page() pieces into an effective migrate on fault scheme. Note that (on x86) we rely on PROT_NONE pages being !present and avoid the TLB flush from try_to_unmap(TTU_MIGRATION). This greatly improves the page-migration performance. Based-on-work-by: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de>
2012-12-11mm: numa: Create basic numa page hinting infrastructureMel Gorman1-0/+22
Note: This patch started as "mm/mpol: Create special PROT_NONE infrastructure" and preserves the basic idea but steals *very* heavily from "autonuma: numa hinting page faults entry points" for the actual fault handlers without the migration parts. The end result is barely recognisable as either patch so all Signed-off and Reviewed-bys are dropped. If Peter, Ingo and Andrea are ok with this version, I will re-add the signed-offs-by to reflect the history. In order to facilitate a lazy -- fault driven -- migration of pages, create a special transient PAGE_NUMA variant, we can then use the 'spurious' protection faults to drive our migrations from. The meaning of PAGE_NUMA depends on the architecture but on x86 it is effectively PROT_NONE. Actual PROT_NONE mappings will not generate these NUMA faults for the reason that the page fault code checks the permission on the VMA (and will throw a segmentation fault on actual PROT_NONE mappings), before it ever calls handle_mm_fault. [dhillf@gmail.com: Fix typo] Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-12-11mm: numa: split_huge_page: transfer the NUMA type from the pmd to the pteAndrea Arcangeli1-0/+2
When we split a transparent hugepage, transfer the NUMA type from the pmd to the pte if needed. Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Reviewed-by: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com>
2012-12-11mm: Check if PTE is already allocated during page faultMel Gorman1-1/+2
With transparent hugepage support, handle_mm_fault() has to be careful that a normal PMD has been established before handling a PTE fault. To achieve this, it used __pte_alloc() directly instead of pte_alloc_map as pte_alloc_map is unsafe to run against a huge PMD. pte_offset_map() is called once it is known the PMD is safe. pte_alloc_map() is smart enough to check if a PTE is already present before calling __pte_alloc but this check was lost. As a consequence, PTEs may be allocated unnecessarily and the page table lock taken. Thi useless PTE does get cleaned up but it's a performance hit which is visible in page_test from aim9. This patch simply re-adds the check normally done by pte_alloc_map to check if the PTE needs to be allocated before taking the page table lock. The effect is noticable in page_test from aim9. AIM9 2.6.38-vanilla 2.6.38-checkptenone creat-clo 446.10 ( 0.00%) 424.47 (-5.10%) page_test 38.10 ( 0.00%) 42.04 ( 9.37%) brk_test 52.45 ( 0.00%) 51.57 (-1.71%) exec_test 382.00 ( 0.00%) 456.90 (16.39%) fork_test 60.11 ( 0.00%) 67.79 (11.34%) MMTests Statistics: duration Total Elapsed Time (seconds) 611.90 612.22 (While this affects 2.6.38, it is a performance rather than a functional bug and normally outside the rules -stable. While the big performance differences are to a microbench, the difference in fork and exec performance may be significant enough that -stable wants to consider the patch) Reported-by: Raz Ben Yehuda <raziebe@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Mel Gorman <mgorman@suse.de> Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> [ Picked this up from the AutoNUMA tree to help it upstream and to allow apples-to-apples performance comparisons. ] Signed-off-by: Ingo Molnar <mingo@kernel.org>
2012-10-15mm: huge_memory: Fix build error.Ralf Baechle1-0/+1
Certain configurations won't implicitly pull in <linux/pagemap.h> resulting in the following build error: mm/huge_memory.c: In function 'release_pte_page': mm/huge_memory.c:1697:2: error: implicit declaration of function 'unlock_page' [-Werror=implicit-function-declaration] mm/huge_memory.c: In function '__collapse_huge_page_isolate': mm/huge_memory.c:1757:3: error: implicit declaration of function 'trylock_page' [-Werror=implicit-function-declaration] cc1: some warnings being treated as errors Reported-by: David Daney <david.daney@cavium.com> Signed-off-by: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm: thp: Use more portable PMD clearing sequenece in zap_huge_pmd().David Miller1-2/+3
Invalidation sequences are handled in various ways on various architectures. One way, which sparc64 uses, is to let the set_*_at() functions accumulate pending flushes into a per-cpu array. Then the flush_tlb_range() et al. calls process the pending TLB flushes. In this regime, the __tlb_remove_*tlb_entry() implementations are essentially NOPs. The canonical PTE zap in mm/memory.c is: ptent = ptep_get_and_clear_full(mm, addr, pte, tlb->fullmm); tlb_remove_tlb_entry(tlb, pte, addr); With a subsequent tlb_flush_mmu() if needed. Mirror this in the THP PMD zapping using: orig_pmd = pmdp_get_and_clear(tlb->mm, addr, pmd); page = pmd_page(orig_pmd); tlb_remove_pmd_tlb_entry(tlb, pmd, addr); And we properly accomodate TLB flush mechanims like the one described above. Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm: Add and use update_mmu_cache_pmd() in transparent huge page code.David Miller1-3/+3
The transparent huge page code passes a PMD pointer in as the third argument of update_mmu_cache(), which expects a PTE pointer. This never got noticed because X86 implements update_mmu_cache() as a macro and thus we don't get any type checking, and X86 is the only architecture which supports transparent huge pages currently. Before other architectures can support transparent huge pages properly we need to add a new interface which will take a PMD pointer as the third argument rather than a PTE pointer. [akpm@linux-foundation.org: implement update_mm_cache_pmd() for s390] Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm, thp: fix mapped pages avoiding unevictable list on mlockDavid Rientjes1-1/+10
When a transparent hugepage is mapped and it is included in an mlock() range, follow_page() incorrectly avoids setting the page's mlock bit and moving it to the unevictable lru. This is evident if you try to mlock(), munlock(), and then mlock() a range again. Currently: #define MAP_SIZE (4 << 30) /* 4GB */ void *ptr = mmap(NULL, MAP_SIZE, PROT_READ | PROT_WRITE, MAP_PRIVATE | MAP_ANONYMOUS, 0, 0); mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); $ grep -E "Unevictable|Inactive\(anon" /proc/meminfo Inactive(anon): 6304 kB Unevictable: 4213924 kB munlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4186252 kB Unevictable: 19652 kB mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4198556 kB Unevictable: 21684 kB Notice that less than 2MB was added to the unevictable list; this is because these pages in the range are not transparent hugepages since the 4GB range was allocated with mmap() and has no specific alignment. If posix_memalign() were used instead, unevictable would not have grown at all on the second mlock(). The fix is to call mlock_vma_page() so that the mlock bit is set and the page is added to the unevictable list. With this patch: mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4056 kB Unevictable: 4213940 kB munlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4198268 kB Unevictable: 19636 kB mlock(ptr, MAP_SIZE); Inactive(anon): 4008 kB Unevictable: 4213940 kB Signed-off-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Acked-by: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Reviewed-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Naoya Horiguchi <n-horiguchi@ah.jp.nec.com> Cc: KAMEZAWA Hiroyuki <kamezawa.hiroyu@jp.fujitsu.com> Cc: Johannes Weiner <hannes@cmpxchg.org> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm: move all mmu notifier invocations to be done outside the PT lockSagi Grimberg1-6/+36
In order to allow sleeping during mmu notifier calls, we need to avoid invoking them under the page table spinlock. This patch solves the problem by calling invalidate_page notification after releasing the lock (but before freeing the page itself), or by wrapping the page invalidation with calls to invalidate_range_begin and invalidate_range_end. To prevent accidental changes to the invalidate_range_end arguments after the call to invalidate_range_begin, the patch introduces a convention of saving the arguments in consistently named locals: unsigned long mmun_start; /* For mmu_notifiers */ unsigned long mmun_end; /* For mmu_notifiers */ ... mmun_start = ... mmun_end = ... mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(mm, mmun_start, mmun_end); ... mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(mm, mmun_start, mmun_end); The patch changes code to use this convention for all calls to mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start/end, except those where the calls are close enough so that anyone who glances at the code can see the values aren't changing. This patchset is a preliminary step towards on-demand paging design to be added to the RDMA stack. Why do we want on-demand paging for Infiniband? Applications register memory with an RDMA adapter using system calls, and subsequently post IO operations that refer to the corresponding virtual addresses directly to HW. Until now, this was achieved by pinning the memory during the registration calls. The goal of on demand paging is to avoid pinning the pages of registered memory regions (MRs). This will allow users the same flexibility they get when swapping any other part of their processes address spaces. Instead of requiring the entire MR to fit in physical memory, we can allow the MR to be larger, and only fit the current working set in physical memory. Why should anyone care? What problems are users currently experiencing? This can make programming with RDMA much simpler. Today, developers that are working with more data than their RAM can hold need either to deregister and reregister memory regions throughout their process's life, or keep a single memory region and copy the data to it. On demand paging will allow these developers to register a single MR at the beginning of their process's life, and let the operating system manage which pages needs to be fetched at a given time. In the future, we might be able to provide a single memory access key for each process that would provide the entire process's address as one large memory region, and the developers wouldn't need to register memory regions at all. Is there any prospect that any other subsystems will utilise these infrastructural changes? If so, which and how, etc? As for other subsystems, I understand that XPMEM wanted to sleep in MMU notifiers, as Christoph Lameter wrote at http://lkml.indiana.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0802.1/0460.html and perhaps Andrea knows about other use cases. Scheduling in mmu notifications is required since we need to sync the hardware with the secondary page tables change. A TLB flush of an IO device is inherently slower than a CPU TLB flush, so our design works by sending the invalidation request to the device, and waiting for an interrupt before exiting the mmu notifier handler. Avi said: kvm may be a buyer. kvm::mmu_lock, which serializes guest page faults, also protects long operations such as destroying large ranges. It would be good to convert it into a spinlock, but as it is used inside mmu notifiers, this cannot be done. (there are alternatives, such as keeping the spinlock and using a generation counter to do the teardown in O(1), which is what the "may" is doing up there). [akpm@linux-foundation.orgpossible speed tweak in hugetlb_cow(), cleanups] Signed-off-by: Andrea Arcangeli <andrea@qumranet.com> Signed-off-by: Sagi Grimberg <sagig@mellanox.com> Signed-off-by: Haggai Eran <haggaie@mellanox.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Or Gerlitz <ogerlitz@mellanox.com> Cc: Haggai Eran <haggaie@mellanox.com> Cc: Shachar Raindel <raindel@mellanox.com> Cc: Liran Liss <liranl@mellanox.com> Cc: Christoph Lameter <cl@linux-foundation.org> Cc: Avi Kivity <avi@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm: thp: fix the update_mmu_cache() last argument passing in mm/huge_memory.cCatalin Marinas1-3/+3
The update_mmu_cache() takes a pointer (to pte_t by default) as the last argument but the huge_memory.c passes a pmd_t value. The patch changes the argument to the pmd_t * pointer. Signed-off-by: Catalin Marinas <catalin.marinas@arm.com> Signed-off-by: Steve Capper <steve.capper@arm.com> Signed-off-by: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com> Cc: Arnd Bergmann <arnd@arndb.de> Reviewed-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill@shutemov.name> Cc: Michal Hocko <mhocko@suse.cz> Cc: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Reviewed-by: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Chris Metcalf <cmetcalf@tilera.com> Cc: Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: khugepaged_prealloc_page() forgot to reset the page alloc indicatorXiao Guangrong1-0/+1
If NUMA is enabled, the indicator is not reset if the previous page request failed, ausing us to trigger the BUG_ON() in khugepaged_alloc_page(). Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm rmap: remove vma_address check for address inside vmaMichel Lespinasse1-4/+0
In file and anon rmap, we use interval trees to find potentially relevant vmas and then call vma_address() to find the virtual address the given page might be found at in these vmas. vma_address() used to include a check that the returned address falls within the limits of the vma, but this check isn't necessary now that we always use interval trees in rmap: the interval tree just doesn't return any vmas which this check would find to be irrelevant. As a result, we can replace the use of -EFAULT error code (which then needed to be checked in every call site) with a VM_BUG_ON(). Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Daniel Santos <daniel.santos@pobox.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09mm anon rmap: replace same_anon_vma linked list with an interval tree.Michel Lespinasse1-2/+3
When a large VMA (anon or private file mapping) is first touched, which will populate its anon_vma field, and then split into many regions through the use of mprotect(), the original anon_vma ends up linking all of the vmas on a linked list. This can cause rmap to become inefficient, as we have to walk potentially thousands of irrelevent vmas before finding the one a given anon page might fall into. By replacing the same_anon_vma linked list with an interval tree (where each avc's interval is determined by its vma's start and last pgoffs), we can make rmap efficient for this use case again. While the change is large, all of its pieces are fairly simple. Most places that were walking the same_anon_vma list were looking for a known pgoff, so they can just use the anon_vma_interval_tree_foreach() interval tree iterator instead. The exception here is ksm, where the page's index is not known. It would probably be possible to rework ksm so that the index would be known, but for now I have decided to keep things simple and just walk the entirety of the interval tree there. When updating vma's that already have an anon_vma assigned, we must take care to re-index the corresponding avc's on their interval tree. This is done through the use of anon_vma_interval_tree_pre_update_vma() and anon_vma_interval_tree_post_update_vma(), which remove the avc's from their interval tree before the update and re-insert them after the update. The anon_vma stays locked during the update, so there is no chance that rmap would miss the vmas that are being updated. Signed-off-by: Michel Lespinasse <walken@google.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Rik van Riel <riel@redhat.com> Cc: Peter Zijlstra <a.p.zijlstra@chello.nl> Cc: Daniel Santos <daniel.santos@pobox.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: make MADV_HUGEPAGE check for mm->def_flagsGerald Schaefer1-0/+4
This adds a check to hugepage_madvise(), to refuse MADV_HUGEPAGE if VM_NOHUGEPAGE is set in mm->def_flags. On s390, the VM_NOHUGEPAGE flag will be set in mm->def_flags for kvm processes, to prevent any future thp mappings. In order to also prevent MADV_HUGEPAGE on such an mm, hugepage_madvise() should check mm->def_flags. Signed-off-by: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: introduce pmdp_invalidate()Gerald Schaefer1-2/+1
On s390, a valid page table entry must not be changed while it is attached to any CPU. So instead of pmd_mknotpresent() and set_pmd_at(), an IDTE operation would be necessary there. This patch introduces the pmdp_invalidate() function, to allow architecture-specific implementations. Signed-off-by: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: remove assumptions on pgtable_t typeGerald Schaefer1-42/+8
The thp page table pre-allocation code currently assumes that pgtable_t is of type "struct page *". This may not be true for all architectures, so this patch removes that assumption by replacing the functions prepare_pmd_huge_pte() and get_pmd_huge_pte() with two new functions that can be defined architecture-specific. It also removes two VM_BUG_ON checks for page_count() and page_mapcount() operating on a pgtable_t. Apart from the VM_BUG_ON removal, there will be no functional change introduced by this patch. Signed-off-by: Gerald Schaefer <gerald.schaefer@de.ibm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: Hillf Danton <dhillf@gmail.com> Cc: Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com> Cc: Heiko Carstens <heiko.carstens@de.ibm.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: remove unnecessary set_recommended_min_free_kbytesXiao Guangrong1-5/+0
Since it is called in start_khugepaged Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: use khugepaged_enabled to remove duplicate codeXiao Guangrong1-9/+2
Use khugepaged_enabled to see whether thp is enabled Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
2012-10-09thp: remove khugepaged_loopXiao Guangrong1-10/+4
Merge khugepaged_loop into khugepaged Signed-off-by: Xiao Guangrong <xiaoguangrong@linux.vnet.ibm.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Hugh Dickins <hughd@google.com> Cc: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>