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+ Booting AArch64 Linux
+ =====================
+
+Author: Will Deacon <will.deacon@arm.com>
+Date : 07 September 2012
+
+This document is based on the ARM booting document by Russell King and
+is relevant to all public releases of the AArch64 Linux kernel.
+
+The AArch64 exception model is made up of a number of exception levels
+(EL0 - EL3), with EL0 and EL1 having a secure and a non-secure
+counterpart. EL2 is the hypervisor level and exists only in non-secure
+mode. EL3 is the highest priority level and exists only in secure mode.
+
+For the purposes of this document, we will use the term `boot loader'
+simply to define all software that executes on the CPU(s) before control
+is passed to the Linux kernel. This may include secure monitor and
+hypervisor code, or it may just be a handful of instructions for
+preparing a minimal boot environment.
+
+Essentially, the boot loader should provide (as a minimum) the
+following:
+
+1. Setup and initialise the RAM
+2. Setup the device tree
+3. Decompress the kernel image
+4. Call the kernel image
+
+
+1. Setup and initialise RAM
+---------------------------
+
+Requirement: MANDATORY
+
+The boot loader is expected to find and initialise all RAM that the
+kernel will use for volatile data storage in the system. It performs
+this in a machine dependent manner. (It may use internal algorithms
+to automatically locate and size all RAM, or it may use knowledge of
+the RAM in the machine, or any other method the boot loader designer
+sees fit.)
+
+
+2. Setup the device tree
+-------------------------
+
+Requirement: MANDATORY
+
+The device tree blob (dtb) must be no bigger than 2 megabytes in size
+and placed at a 2-megabyte boundary within the first 512 megabytes from
+the start of the kernel image. This is to allow the kernel to map the
+blob using a single section mapping in the initial page tables.
+
+
+3. Decompress the kernel image
+------------------------------
+
+Requirement: OPTIONAL
+
+The AArch64 kernel does not currently provide a decompressor and
+therefore requires decompression (gzip etc.) to be performed by the boot
+loader if a compressed Image target (e.g. Image.gz) is used. For
+bootloaders that do not implement this requirement, the uncompressed
+Image target is available instead.
+
+
+4. Call the kernel image
+------------------------
+
+Requirement: MANDATORY
+
+The decompressed kernel image contains a 32-byte header as follows:
+
+ u32 magic = 0x14000008; /* branch to stext, little-endian */
+ u32 res0 = 0; /* reserved */
+ u64 text_offset; /* Image load offset */
+ u64 res1 = 0; /* reserved */
+ u64 res2 = 0; /* reserved */
+
+The image must be placed at the specified offset (currently 0x80000)
+from the start of the system RAM and called there. The start of the
+system RAM must be aligned to 2MB.
+
+Before jumping into the kernel, the following conditions must be met:
+
+- Quiesce all DMA capable devices so that memory does not get
+ corrupted by bogus network packets or disk data. This will save
+ you many hours of debug.
+
+- Primary CPU general-purpose register settings
+ x0 = physical address of device tree blob (dtb) in system RAM.
+ x1 = 0 (reserved for future use)
+ x2 = 0 (reserved for future use)
+ x3 = 0 (reserved for future use)
+
+- CPU mode
+ All forms of interrupts must be masked in PSTATE.DAIF (Debug, SError,
+ IRQ and FIQ).
+ The CPU must be in either EL2 (RECOMMENDED in order to have access to
+ the virtualisation extensions) or non-secure EL1.
+
+- Caches, MMUs
+ The MMU must be off.
+ Instruction cache may be on or off.
+ Data cache must be off and invalidated.
+ External caches (if present) must be configured and disabled.
+
+- Architected timers
+ CNTFRQ must be programmed with the timer frequency.
+ If entering the kernel at EL1, CNTHCTL_EL2 must have EL1PCTEN (bit 0)
+ set where available.
+
+- Coherency
+ All CPUs to be booted by the kernel must be part of the same coherency
+ domain on entry to the kernel. This may require IMPLEMENTATION DEFINED
+ initialisation to enable the receiving of maintenance operations on
+ each CPU.
+
+- System registers
+ All writable architected system registers at the exception level where
+ the kernel image will be entered must be initialised by software at a
+ higher exception level to prevent execution in an UNKNOWN state.
+
+The boot loader is expected to enter the kernel on each CPU in the
+following manner:
+
+- The primary CPU must jump directly to the first instruction of the
+ kernel image. The device tree blob passed by this CPU must contain
+ for each CPU node:
+
+ 1. An 'enable-method' property. Currently, the only supported value
+ for this field is the string "spin-table".
+
+ 2. A 'cpu-release-addr' property identifying a 64-bit,
+ zero-initialised memory location.
+
+ It is expected that the bootloader will generate these device tree
+ properties and insert them into the blob prior to kernel entry.
+
+- Any secondary CPUs must spin outside of the kernel in a reserved area
+ of memory (communicated to the kernel by a /memreserve/ region in the
+ device tree) polling their cpu-release-addr location, which must be
+ contained in the reserved region. A wfe instruction may be inserted
+ to reduce the overhead of the busy-loop and a sev will be issued by
+ the primary CPU. When a read of the location pointed to by the
+ cpu-release-addr returns a non-zero value, the CPU must jump directly
+ to this value.
+
+- Secondary CPU general-purpose register settings
+ x0 = 0 (reserved for future use)
+ x1 = 0 (reserved for future use)
+ x2 = 0 (reserved for future use)
+ x3 = 0 (reserved for future use)