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authorKirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com>2012-12-12 13:50:47 -0800
committerLinus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>2012-12-12 17:38:31 -0800
commit4a6c1297268c917e9c50701906ba2f7e06812299 (patch)
treec8fecd1f6b20fe029f726bf8724dcfb68a3fcc60 /mm/huge_memory.c
parent3f7dfe24b84c0ad698c461fc9c4ba3544bbfcebf (diff)
thp: huge zero page: basic preparation
During testing I noticed big (up to 2.5 times) memory consumption overhead on some workloads (e.g. ft.A from NPB) if THP is enabled. The main reason for that big difference is lacking zero page in THP case. We have to allocate a real page on read page fault. A program to demonstrate the issue: #include <assert.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <unistd.h> #define MB 1024*1024 int main(int argc, char **argv) { char *p; int i; posix_memalign((void **)&p, 2 * MB, 200 * MB); for (i = 0; i < 200 * MB; i+= 4096) assert(p[i] == 0); pause(); return 0; } With thp-never RSS is about 400k, but with thp-always it's 200M. After the patcheset thp-always RSS is 400k too. Design overview. Huge zero page (hzp) is a non-movable huge page (2M on x86-64) filled with zeros. The way how we allocate it changes in the patchset: - [01/10] simplest way: hzp allocated on boot time in hugepage_init(); - [09/10] lazy allocation on first use; - [10/10] lockless refcounting + shrinker-reclaimable hzp; We setup it in do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page() if area around fault address is suitable for THP and we've got read page fault. If we fail to setup hzp (ENOMEM) we fallback to handle_pte_fault() as we normally do in THP. On wp fault to hzp we allocate real memory for the huge page and clear it. If ENOMEM, graceful fallback: we create a new pmd table and set pte around fault address to newly allocated normal (4k) page. All other ptes in the pmd set to normal zero page. We cannot split hzp (and it's bug if we try), but we can split the pmd which points to it. On splitting the pmd we create a table with all ptes set to normal zero page. === By hpa's request I've tried alternative approach for hzp implementation (see Virtual huge zero page patchset): pmd table with all entries set to zero page. This way should be more cache friendly, but it increases TLB pressure. The problem with virtual huge zero page: it requires per-arch enabling. We need a way to mark that pmd table has all ptes set to zero page. Some numbers to compare two implementations (on 4s Westmere-EX): Mirobenchmark1 ============== test: posix_memalign((void **)&p, 2 * MB, 8 * GB); for (i = 0; i < 100; i++) { assert(memcmp(p, p + 4*GB, 4*GB) == 0); asm volatile ("": : :"memory"); } hzp: Performance counter stats for './test_memcmp' (5 runs): 32356.272845 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.13% ) 40 context-switches # 0.001 K/sec ( +- 0.94% ) 0 CPU-migrations # 0.000 K/sec 4,218 page-faults # 0.130 K/sec ( +- 0.00% ) 76,712,481,765 cycles # 2.371 GHz ( +- 0.13% ) [83.31%] 36,279,577,636 stalled-cycles-frontend # 47.29% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.28% ) [83.35%] 1,684,049,110 stalled-cycles-backend # 2.20% backend cycles idle ( +- 2.96% ) [66.67%] 134,355,715,816 instructions # 1.75 insns per cycle # 0.27 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.10% ) [83.35%] 13,526,169,702 branches # 418.039 M/sec ( +- 0.10% ) [83.31%] 1,058,230 branch-misses # 0.01% of all branches ( +- 0.91% ) [83.36%] 32.413866442 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.13% ) vhzp: Performance counter stats for './test_memcmp' (5 runs): 30327.183829 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.13% ) 38 context-switches # 0.001 K/sec ( +- 1.53% ) 0 CPU-migrations # 0.000 K/sec 4,218 page-faults # 0.139 K/sec ( +- 0.01% ) 71,964,773,660 cycles # 2.373 GHz ( +- 0.13% ) [83.35%] 31,191,284,231 stalled-cycles-frontend # 43.34% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.40% ) [83.32%] 773,484,474 stalled-cycles-backend # 1.07% backend cycles idle ( +- 6.61% ) [66.67%] 134,982,215,437 instructions # 1.88 insns per cycle # 0.23 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.11% ) [83.32%] 13,509,150,683 branches # 445.447 M/sec ( +- 0.11% ) [83.34%] 1,017,667 branch-misses # 0.01% of all branches ( +- 1.07% ) [83.32%] 30.381324695 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.13% ) Mirobenchmark2 ============== test: posix_memalign((void **)&p, 2 * MB, 8 * GB); for (i = 0; i < 1000; i++) { char *_p = p; while (_p < p+4*GB) { assert(*_p == *(_p+4*GB)); _p += 4096; asm volatile ("": : :"memory"); } } hzp: Performance counter stats for 'taskset -c 0 ./test_memcmp2' (5 runs): 3505.727639 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.26% ) 9 context-switches # 0.003 K/sec ( +- 4.97% ) 4,384 page-faults # 0.001 M/sec ( +- 0.00% ) 8,318,482,466 cycles # 2.373 GHz ( +- 0.26% ) [33.31%] 5,134,318,786 stalled-cycles-frontend # 61.72% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.42% ) [33.32%] 2,193,266,208 stalled-cycles-backend # 26.37% backend cycles idle ( +- 5.51% ) [33.33%] 9,494,670,537 instructions # 1.14 insns per cycle # 0.54 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.13% ) [41.68%] 2,108,522,738 branches # 601.451 M/sec ( +- 0.09% ) [41.68%] 158,746 branch-misses # 0.01% of all branches ( +- 1.60% ) [41.71%] 3,168,102,115 L1-dcache-loads # 903.693 M/sec ( +- 0.11% ) [41.70%] 1,048,710,998 L1-dcache-misses # 33.10% of all L1-dcache hits ( +- 0.11% ) [41.72%] 1,047,699,685 LLC-load # 298.854 M/sec ( +- 0.03% ) [33.38%] 2,287 LLC-misses # 0.00% of all LL-cache hits ( +- 8.27% ) [33.37%] 3,166,187,367 dTLB-loads # 903.147 M/sec ( +- 0.02% ) [33.35%] 4,266,538 dTLB-misses # 0.13% of all dTLB cache hits ( +- 0.03% ) [33.33%] 3.513339813 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.26% ) vhzp: Performance counter stats for 'taskset -c 0 ./test_memcmp2' (5 runs): 27313.891128 task-clock # 0.998 CPUs utilized ( +- 0.24% ) 62 context-switches # 0.002 K/sec ( +- 0.61% ) 4,384 page-faults # 0.160 K/sec ( +- 0.01% ) 64,747,374,606 cycles # 2.370 GHz ( +- 0.24% ) [33.33%] 61,341,580,278 stalled-cycles-frontend # 94.74% frontend cycles idle ( +- 0.26% ) [33.33%] 56,702,237,511 stalled-cycles-backend # 87.57% backend cycles idle ( +- 0.07% ) [33.33%] 10,033,724,846 instructions # 0.15 insns per cycle # 6.11 stalled cycles per insn ( +- 0.09% ) [41.65%] 2,190,424,932 branches # 80.195 M/sec ( +- 0.12% ) [41.66%] 1,028,630 branch-misses # 0.05% of all branches ( +- 1.50% ) [41.66%] 3,302,006,540 L1-dcache-loads # 120.891 M/sec ( +- 0.11% ) [41.68%] 271,374,358 L1-dcache-misses # 8.22% of all L1-dcache hits ( +- 0.04% ) [41.66%] 20,385,476 LLC-load # 0.746 M/sec ( +- 1.64% ) [33.34%] 76,754 LLC-misses # 0.38% of all LL-cache hits ( +- 2.35% ) [33.34%] 3,309,927,290 dTLB-loads # 121.181 M/sec ( +- 0.03% ) [33.34%] 2,098,967,427 dTLB-misses # 63.41% of all dTLB cache hits ( +- 0.03% ) [33.34%] 27.364448741 seconds time elapsed ( +- 0.24% ) === I personally prefer implementation present in this patchset. It doesn't touch arch-specific code. This patch: Huge zero page (hzp) is a non-movable huge page (2M on x86-64) filled with zeros. For now let's allocate the page on hugepage_init(). We'll switch to lazy allocation later. We are not going to map the huge zero page until we can handle it properly on all code paths. is_huge_zero_{pfn,pmd}() functions will be used by following patches to check whether the pfn/pmd is huge zero page. Signed-off-by: Kirill A. Shutemov <kirill.shutemov@linux.intel.com> Cc: Andrea Arcangeli <aarcange@redhat.com> Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@linux.intel.com> Cc: "H. Peter Anvin" <hpa@linux.intel.com> Cc: Mel Gorman <mel@csn.ul.ie> Acked-by: David Rientjes <rientjes@google.com> Signed-off-by: Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org> Signed-off-by: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
Diffstat (limited to 'mm/huge_memory.c')
-rw-r--r--mm/huge_memory.c30
1 files changed, 30 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/mm/huge_memory.c b/mm/huge_memory.c
index 5f902e20e8c..04eb489a680 100644
--- a/mm/huge_memory.c
+++ b/mm/huge_memory.c
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@ static unsigned int khugepaged_scan_sleep_millisecs __read_mostly = 10000;
/* during fragmentation poll the hugepage allocator once every minute */
static unsigned int khugepaged_alloc_sleep_millisecs __read_mostly = 60000;
static struct task_struct *khugepaged_thread __read_mostly;
+static unsigned long huge_zero_pfn __read_mostly;
static DEFINE_MUTEX(khugepaged_mutex);
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(khugepaged_mm_lock);
static DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(khugepaged_wait);
@@ -159,6 +160,29 @@ static int start_khugepaged(void)
return err;
}
+static int __init init_huge_zero_page(void)
+{
+ struct page *hpage;
+
+ hpage = alloc_pages((GFP_TRANSHUGE | __GFP_ZERO) & ~__GFP_MOVABLE,
+ HPAGE_PMD_ORDER);
+ if (!hpage)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+
+ huge_zero_pfn = page_to_pfn(hpage);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static inline bool is_huge_zero_pfn(unsigned long pfn)
+{
+ return pfn == huge_zero_pfn;
+}
+
+static inline bool is_huge_zero_pmd(pmd_t pmd)
+{
+ return is_huge_zero_pfn(pmd_pfn(pmd));
+}
+
#ifdef CONFIG_SYSFS
static ssize_t double_flag_show(struct kobject *kobj,
@@ -540,6 +564,10 @@ static int __init hugepage_init(void)
if (err)
return err;
+ err = init_huge_zero_page();
+ if (err)
+ goto out;
+
err = khugepaged_slab_init();
if (err)
goto out;
@@ -562,6 +590,8 @@ static int __init hugepage_init(void)
return 0;
out:
+ if (huge_zero_pfn)
+ __free_page(pfn_to_page(huge_zero_pfn));
hugepage_exit_sysfs(hugepage_kobj);
return err;
}