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authorRoger Pau Monne <roger.pau@citrix.com>2012-10-24 18:58:45 +0200
committerKonrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com>2012-10-30 09:50:04 -0400
commit0a8704a51f386cab7394e38ff1d66eef924d8ab8 (patch)
tree8fb3897bad957fa592ff54cacc97de924246c125 /drivers/block/xen-blkback
parent8f0d8163b50e01f398b14bcd4dc039ac5ab18d64 (diff)
xen/blkback: Persistent grant maps for xen blk drivers
This patch implements persistent grants for the xen-blk{front,back} mechanism. The effect of this change is to reduce the number of unmap operations performed, since they cause a (costly) TLB shootdown. This allows the I/O performance to scale better when a large number of VMs are performing I/O. Previously, the blkfront driver was supplied a bvec[] from the request queue. This was granted to dom0; dom0 performed the I/O and wrote directly into the grant-mapped memory and unmapped it; blkfront then removed foreign access for that grant. The cost of unmapping scales badly with the number of CPUs in Dom0. An experiment showed that when Dom0 has 24 VCPUs, and guests are performing parallel I/O to a ramdisk, the IPIs from performing unmap's is a bottleneck at 5 guests (at which point 650,000 IOPS are being performed in total). If more than 5 guests are used, the performance declines. By 10 guests, only 400,000 IOPS are being performed. This patch improves performance by only unmapping when the connection between blkfront and back is broken. On startup blkfront notifies blkback that it is using persistent grants, and blkback will do the same. If blkback is not capable of persistent mapping, blkfront will still use the same grants, since it is compatible with the previous protocol, and simplifies the code complexity in blkfront. To perform a read, in persistent mode, blkfront uses a separate pool of pages that it maps to dom0. When a request comes in, blkfront transmutes the request so that blkback will write into one of these free pages. Blkback keeps note of which grefs it has already mapped. When a new ring request comes to blkback, it looks to see if it has already mapped that page. If so, it will not map it again. If the page hasn't been previously mapped, it is mapped now, and a record is kept of this mapping. Blkback proceeds as usual. When blkfront is notified that blkback has completed a request, it memcpy's from the shared memory, into the bvec supplied. A record that the {gref, page} tuple is mapped, and not inflight is kept. Writes are similar, except that the memcpy is peformed from the supplied bvecs, into the shared pages, before the request is put onto the ring. Blkback stores a mapping of grefs=>{page mapped to by gref} in a red-black tree. As the grefs are not known apriori, and provide no guarantees on their ordering, we have to perform a search through this tree to find the page, for every gref we receive. This operation takes O(log n) time in the worst case. In blkfront grants are stored using a single linked list. The maximum number of grants that blkback will persistenly map is currently set to RING_SIZE * BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST, to prevent a malicios guest from attempting a DoS, by supplying fresh grefs, causing the Dom0 kernel to map excessively. If a guest is using persistent grants and exceeds the maximum number of grants to map persistenly the newly passed grefs will be mapped and unmaped. Using this approach, we can have requests that mix persistent and non-persistent grants, and we need to handle them correctly. This allows us to set the maximum number of persistent grants to a lower value than RING_SIZE * BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST, although setting it will lead to unpredictable performance. In writing this patch, the question arrises as to if the additional cost of performing memcpys in the guest (to/from the pool of granted pages) outweigh the gains of not performing TLB shootdowns. The answer to that question is `no'. There appears to be very little, if any additional cost to the guest of using persistent grants. There is perhaps a small saving, from the reduced number of hypercalls performed in granting, and ending foreign access. Signed-off-by: Oliver Chick <oliver.chick@citrix.com> Signed-off-by: Roger Pau Monne <roger.pau@citrix.com> Signed-off-by: Konrad Rzeszutek Wilk <konrad.wilk@oracle.com> [v1: Fixed up the misuse of bool as int]
Diffstat (limited to 'drivers/block/xen-blkback')
-rw-r--r--drivers/block/xen-blkback/blkback.c292
-rw-r--r--drivers/block/xen-blkback/common.h17
-rw-r--r--drivers/block/xen-blkback/xenbus.c23
3 files changed, 305 insertions, 27 deletions
diff --git a/drivers/block/xen-blkback/blkback.c b/drivers/block/xen-blkback/blkback.c
index 280a13846e6..d7dd5cbdac5 100644
--- a/drivers/block/xen-blkback/blkback.c
+++ b/drivers/block/xen-blkback/blkback.c
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@
#include <linux/list.h>
#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/freezer.h>
+#include <linux/bitmap.h>
#include <xen/events.h>
#include <xen/page.h>
@@ -79,6 +80,7 @@ struct pending_req {
unsigned short operation;
int status;
struct list_head free_list;
+ DECLARE_BITMAP(unmap_seg, BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST);
};
#define BLKBACK_INVALID_HANDLE (~0)
@@ -99,6 +101,36 @@ struct xen_blkbk {
static struct xen_blkbk *blkbk;
/*
+ * Maximum number of grant pages that can be mapped in blkback.
+ * BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST * RING_SIZE is the maximum number of
+ * pages that blkback will persistently map.
+ * Currently, this is:
+ * RING_SIZE = 32 (for all known ring types)
+ * BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST = 11
+ * sizeof(struct persistent_gnt) = 48
+ * So the maximum memory used to store the grants is:
+ * 32 * 11 * 48 = 16896 bytes
+ */
+static inline unsigned int max_mapped_grant_pages(enum blkif_protocol protocol)
+{
+ switch (protocol) {
+ case BLKIF_PROTOCOL_NATIVE:
+ return __CONST_RING_SIZE(blkif, PAGE_SIZE) *
+ BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST;
+ case BLKIF_PROTOCOL_X86_32:
+ return __CONST_RING_SIZE(blkif_x86_32, PAGE_SIZE) *
+ BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST;
+ case BLKIF_PROTOCOL_X86_64:
+ return __CONST_RING_SIZE(blkif_x86_64, PAGE_SIZE) *
+ BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST;
+ default:
+ BUG();
+ }
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
* Little helpful macro to figure out the index and virtual address of the
* pending_pages[..]. For each 'pending_req' we have have up to
* BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST (11) pages. The seg would be from 0 through
@@ -129,6 +161,57 @@ static int dispatch_rw_block_io(struct xen_blkif *blkif,
static void make_response(struct xen_blkif *blkif, u64 id,
unsigned short op, int st);
+#define foreach_grant(pos, rbtree, node) \
+ for ((pos) = container_of(rb_first((rbtree)), typeof(*(pos)), node); \
+ &(pos)->node != NULL; \
+ (pos) = container_of(rb_next(&(pos)->node), typeof(*(pos)), node))
+
+
+static void add_persistent_gnt(struct rb_root *root,
+ struct persistent_gnt *persistent_gnt)
+{
+ struct rb_node **new = &(root->rb_node), *parent = NULL;
+ struct persistent_gnt *this;
+
+ /* Figure out where to put new node */
+ while (*new) {
+ this = container_of(*new, struct persistent_gnt, node);
+
+ parent = *new;
+ if (persistent_gnt->gnt < this->gnt)
+ new = &((*new)->rb_left);
+ else if (persistent_gnt->gnt > this->gnt)
+ new = &((*new)->rb_right);
+ else {
+ pr_alert(DRV_PFX " trying to add a gref that's already in the tree\n");
+ BUG();
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* Add new node and rebalance tree. */
+ rb_link_node(&(persistent_gnt->node), parent, new);
+ rb_insert_color(&(persistent_gnt->node), root);
+}
+
+static struct persistent_gnt *get_persistent_gnt(struct rb_root *root,
+ grant_ref_t gref)
+{
+ struct persistent_gnt *data;
+ struct rb_node *node = root->rb_node;
+
+ while (node) {
+ data = container_of(node, struct persistent_gnt, node);
+
+ if (gref < data->gnt)
+ node = node->rb_left;
+ else if (gref > data->gnt)
+ node = node->rb_right;
+ else
+ return data;
+ }
+ return NULL;
+}
+
/*
* Retrieve from the 'pending_reqs' a free pending_req structure to be used.
*/
@@ -275,6 +358,11 @@ int xen_blkif_schedule(void *arg)
{
struct xen_blkif *blkif = arg;
struct xen_vbd *vbd = &blkif->vbd;
+ struct gnttab_unmap_grant_ref unmap[BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST];
+ struct page *pages[BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST];
+ struct persistent_gnt *persistent_gnt;
+ int ret = 0;
+ int segs_to_unmap = 0;
xen_blkif_get(blkif);
@@ -302,6 +390,36 @@ int xen_blkif_schedule(void *arg)
print_stats(blkif);
}
+ /* Free all persistent grant pages */
+ if (!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&blkif->persistent_gnts)) {
+ foreach_grant(persistent_gnt, &blkif->persistent_gnts, node) {
+ BUG_ON(persistent_gnt->handle ==
+ BLKBACK_INVALID_HANDLE);
+ gnttab_set_unmap_op(&unmap[segs_to_unmap],
+ (unsigned long) pfn_to_kaddr(page_to_pfn(
+ persistent_gnt->page)),
+ GNTMAP_host_map,
+ persistent_gnt->handle);
+
+ pages[segs_to_unmap] = persistent_gnt->page;
+ rb_erase(&persistent_gnt->node,
+ &blkif->persistent_gnts);
+ kfree(persistent_gnt);
+ blkif->persistent_gnt_c--;
+
+ if (++segs_to_unmap == BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST ||
+ !rb_next(&persistent_gnt->node)) {
+ ret = gnttab_unmap_refs(unmap, NULL, pages,
+ segs_to_unmap);
+ BUG_ON(ret);
+ segs_to_unmap = 0;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ BUG_ON(blkif->persistent_gnt_c != 0);
+ BUG_ON(!RB_EMPTY_ROOT(&blkif->persistent_gnts));
+
if (log_stats)
print_stats(blkif);
@@ -328,6 +446,8 @@ static void xen_blkbk_unmap(struct pending_req *req)
int ret;
for (i = 0; i < req->nr_pages; i++) {
+ if (!test_bit(i, req->unmap_seg))
+ continue;
handle = pending_handle(req, i);
if (handle == BLKBACK_INVALID_HANDLE)
continue;
@@ -344,12 +464,26 @@ static void xen_blkbk_unmap(struct pending_req *req)
static int xen_blkbk_map(struct blkif_request *req,
struct pending_req *pending_req,
- struct seg_buf seg[])
+ struct seg_buf seg[],
+ struct page *pages[])
{
struct gnttab_map_grant_ref map[BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST];
- int i;
+ struct persistent_gnt *persistent_gnts[BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST];
+ struct page *pages_to_gnt[BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST];
+ struct persistent_gnt *persistent_gnt = NULL;
+ struct xen_blkif *blkif = pending_req->blkif;
+ phys_addr_t addr = 0;
+ int i, j;
+ bool new_map;
int nseg = req->u.rw.nr_segments;
+ int segs_to_map = 0;
int ret = 0;
+ int use_persistent_gnts;
+
+ use_persistent_gnts = (blkif->vbd.feature_gnt_persistent);
+
+ BUG_ON(blkif->persistent_gnt_c >
+ max_mapped_grant_pages(pending_req->blkif->blk_protocol));
/*
* Fill out preq.nr_sects with proper amount of sectors, and setup
@@ -359,36 +493,143 @@ static int xen_blkbk_map(struct blkif_request *req,
for (i = 0; i < nseg; i++) {
uint32_t flags;
- flags = GNTMAP_host_map;
- if (pending_req->operation != BLKIF_OP_READ)
- flags |= GNTMAP_readonly;
- gnttab_set_map_op(&map[i], vaddr(pending_req, i), flags,
- req->u.rw.seg[i].gref,
- pending_req->blkif->domid);
+ if (use_persistent_gnts)
+ persistent_gnt = get_persistent_gnt(
+ &blkif->persistent_gnts,
+ req->u.rw.seg[i].gref);
+
+ if (persistent_gnt) {
+ /*
+ * We are using persistent grants and
+ * the grant is already mapped
+ */
+ new_map = false;
+ } else if (use_persistent_gnts &&
+ blkif->persistent_gnt_c <
+ max_mapped_grant_pages(blkif->blk_protocol)) {
+ /*
+ * We are using persistent grants, the grant is
+ * not mapped but we have room for it
+ */
+ new_map = true;
+ persistent_gnt = kzalloc(
+ sizeof(struct persistent_gnt),
+ GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!persistent_gnt)
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ persistent_gnt->page = alloc_page(GFP_KERNEL);
+ if (!persistent_gnt->page) {
+ kfree(persistent_gnt);
+ return -ENOMEM;
+ }
+ persistent_gnt->gnt = req->u.rw.seg[i].gref;
+
+ pages_to_gnt[segs_to_map] =
+ persistent_gnt->page;
+ addr = (unsigned long) pfn_to_kaddr(
+ page_to_pfn(persistent_gnt->page));
+
+ add_persistent_gnt(&blkif->persistent_gnts,
+ persistent_gnt);
+ blkif->persistent_gnt_c++;
+ pr_debug(DRV_PFX " grant %u added to the tree of persistent grants, using %u/%u\n",
+ persistent_gnt->gnt, blkif->persistent_gnt_c,
+ max_mapped_grant_pages(blkif->blk_protocol));
+ } else {
+ /*
+ * We are either using persistent grants and
+ * hit the maximum limit of grants mapped,
+ * or we are not using persistent grants.
+ */
+ if (use_persistent_gnts &&
+ !blkif->vbd.overflow_max_grants) {
+ blkif->vbd.overflow_max_grants = 1;
+ pr_alert(DRV_PFX " domain %u, device %#x is using maximum number of persistent grants\n",
+ blkif->domid, blkif->vbd.handle);
+ }
+ new_map = true;
+ pages[i] = blkbk->pending_page(pending_req, i);
+ addr = vaddr(pending_req, i);
+ pages_to_gnt[segs_to_map] =
+ blkbk->pending_page(pending_req, i);
+ }
+
+ if (persistent_gnt) {
+ pages[i] = persistent_gnt->page;
+ persistent_gnts[i] = persistent_gnt;
+ } else {
+ persistent_gnts[i] = NULL;
+ }
+
+ if (new_map) {
+ flags = GNTMAP_host_map;
+ if (!persistent_gnt &&
+ (pending_req->operation != BLKIF_OP_READ))
+ flags |= GNTMAP_readonly;
+ gnttab_set_map_op(&map[segs_to_map++], addr,
+ flags, req->u.rw.seg[i].gref,
+ blkif->domid);
+ }
}
- ret = gnttab_map_refs(map, NULL, &blkbk->pending_page(pending_req, 0), nseg);
- BUG_ON(ret);
+ if (segs_to_map) {
+ ret = gnttab_map_refs(map, NULL, pages_to_gnt, segs_to_map);
+ BUG_ON(ret);
+ }
/*
* Now swizzle the MFN in our domain with the MFN from the other domain
* so that when we access vaddr(pending_req,i) it has the contents of
* the page from the other domain.
*/
- for (i = 0; i < nseg; i++) {
- if (unlikely(map[i].status != 0)) {
- pr_debug(DRV_PFX "invalid buffer -- could not remap it\n");
- map[i].handle = BLKBACK_INVALID_HANDLE;
- ret |= 1;
+ bitmap_zero(pending_req->unmap_seg, BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST);
+ for (i = 0, j = 0; i < nseg; i++) {
+ if (!persistent_gnts[i] || !persistent_gnts[i]->handle) {
+ /* This is a newly mapped grant */
+ BUG_ON(j >= segs_to_map);
+ if (unlikely(map[j].status != 0)) {
+ pr_debug(DRV_PFX "invalid buffer -- could not remap it\n");
+ map[j].handle = BLKBACK_INVALID_HANDLE;
+ ret |= 1;
+ if (persistent_gnts[i]) {
+ rb_erase(&persistent_gnts[i]->node,
+ &blkif->persistent_gnts);
+ blkif->persistent_gnt_c--;
+ kfree(persistent_gnts[i]);
+ persistent_gnts[i] = NULL;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ if (persistent_gnts[i]) {
+ if (!persistent_gnts[i]->handle) {
+ /*
+ * If this is a new persistent grant
+ * save the handler
+ */
+ persistent_gnts[i]->handle = map[j].handle;
+ persistent_gnts[i]->dev_bus_addr =
+ map[j++].dev_bus_addr;
+ }
+ pending_handle(pending_req, i) =
+ persistent_gnts[i]->handle;
+
+ if (ret)
+ continue;
+
+ seg[i].buf = persistent_gnts[i]->dev_bus_addr |
+ (req->u.rw.seg[i].first_sect << 9);
+ } else {
+ pending_handle(pending_req, i) = map[j].handle;
+ bitmap_set(pending_req->unmap_seg, i, 1);
+
+ if (ret) {
+ j++;
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ seg[i].buf = map[j++].dev_bus_addr |
+ (req->u.rw.seg[i].first_sect << 9);
}
-
- pending_handle(pending_req, i) = map[i].handle;
-
- if (ret)
- continue;
-
- seg[i].buf = map[i].dev_bus_addr |
- (req->u.rw.seg[i].first_sect << 9);
}
return ret;
}
@@ -591,6 +832,7 @@ static int dispatch_rw_block_io(struct xen_blkif *blkif,
int operation;
struct blk_plug plug;
bool drain = false;
+ struct page *pages[BLKIF_MAX_SEGMENTS_PER_REQUEST];
switch (req->operation) {
case BLKIF_OP_READ:
@@ -677,7 +919,7 @@ static int dispatch_rw_block_io(struct xen_blkif *blkif,
* the hypercall to unmap the grants - that is all done in
* xen_blkbk_unmap.
*/
- if (xen_blkbk_map(req, pending_req, seg))
+ if (xen_blkbk_map(req, pending_req, seg, pages))
goto fail_flush;
/*
@@ -689,7 +931,7 @@ static int dispatch_rw_block_io(struct xen_blkif *blkif,
for (i = 0; i < nseg; i++) {
while ((bio == NULL) ||
(bio_add_page(bio,
- blkbk->pending_page(pending_req, i),
+ pages[i],
seg[i].nsec << 9,
seg[i].buf & ~PAGE_MASK) == 0)) {
diff --git a/drivers/block/xen-blkback/common.h b/drivers/block/xen-blkback/common.h
index 9ad3b5ec1dc..ae7951f0e26 100644
--- a/drivers/block/xen-blkback/common.h
+++ b/drivers/block/xen-blkback/common.h
@@ -34,6 +34,7 @@
#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
#include <linux/wait.h>
#include <linux/io.h>
+#include <linux/rbtree.h>
#include <asm/setup.h>
#include <asm/pgalloc.h>
#include <asm/hypervisor.h>
@@ -160,10 +161,22 @@ struct xen_vbd {
sector_t size;
bool flush_support;
bool discard_secure;
+
+ unsigned int feature_gnt_persistent:1;
+ unsigned int overflow_max_grants:1;
};
struct backend_info;
+
+struct persistent_gnt {
+ struct page *page;
+ grant_ref_t gnt;
+ grant_handle_t handle;
+ uint64_t dev_bus_addr;
+ struct rb_node node;
+};
+
struct xen_blkif {
/* Unique identifier for this interface. */
domid_t domid;
@@ -190,6 +203,10 @@ struct xen_blkif {
struct task_struct *xenblkd;
unsigned int waiting_reqs;
+ /* tree to store persistent grants */
+ struct rb_root persistent_gnts;
+ unsigned int persistent_gnt_c;
+
/* statistics */
unsigned long st_print;
int st_rd_req;
diff --git a/drivers/block/xen-blkback/xenbus.c b/drivers/block/xen-blkback/xenbus.c
index 4f66171c668..b2250265308 100644
--- a/drivers/block/xen-blkback/xenbus.c
+++ b/drivers/block/xen-blkback/xenbus.c
@@ -118,6 +118,7 @@ static struct xen_blkif *xen_blkif_alloc(domid_t domid)
atomic_set(&blkif->drain, 0);
blkif->st_print = jiffies;
init_waitqueue_head(&blkif->waiting_to_free);
+ blkif->persistent_gnts.rb_node = NULL;
return blkif;
}
@@ -673,6 +674,13 @@ again:
xen_blkbk_barrier(xbt, be, be->blkif->vbd.flush_support);
+ err = xenbus_printf(xbt, dev->nodename, "feature-persistent", "%u", 1);
+ if (err) {
+ xenbus_dev_fatal(dev, err, "writing %s/feature-persistent",
+ dev->nodename);
+ goto abort;
+ }
+
err = xenbus_printf(xbt, dev->nodename, "sectors", "%llu",
(unsigned long long)vbd_sz(&be->blkif->vbd));
if (err) {
@@ -721,6 +729,7 @@ static int connect_ring(struct backend_info *be)
struct xenbus_device *dev = be->dev;
unsigned long ring_ref;
unsigned int evtchn;
+ unsigned int pers_grants;
char protocol[64] = "";
int err;
@@ -750,8 +759,18 @@ static int connect_ring(struct backend_info *be)
xenbus_dev_fatal(dev, err, "unknown fe protocol %s", protocol);
return -1;
}
- pr_info(DRV_PFX "ring-ref %ld, event-channel %d, protocol %d (%s)\n",
- ring_ref, evtchn, be->blkif->blk_protocol, protocol);
+ err = xenbus_gather(XBT_NIL, dev->otherend,
+ "feature-persistent-grants", "%u",
+ &pers_grants, NULL);
+ if (err)
+ pers_grants = 0;
+
+ be->blkif->vbd.feature_gnt_persistent = pers_grants;
+ be->blkif->vbd.overflow_max_grants = 0;
+
+ pr_info(DRV_PFX "ring-ref %ld, event-channel %d, protocol %d (%s) %s\n",
+ ring_ref, evtchn, be->blkif->blk_protocol, protocol,
+ pers_grants ? "persistent grants" : "");
/* Map the shared frame, irq etc. */
err = xen_blkif_map(be->blkif, ring_ref, evtchn);